X-Files; Dana Scully Cosplay
New Elements Discovered 10 Years Ago
Two newly discovered elements are now called flerovium (Fl) and livermorium (Lv). These elements [114 & 116] on the Dynamic Periodic Table, have 114 and 116 protons equaling their atomic number (also proton number). This is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom—also called the charge number of the nucleus.
Almost all chemical properties of a molecule are determined by their electron shells. Possible properties that are not mentioned are transparency, hardness, bonding ability, and possibilities of shifting dimensions.
Will an adhesive bond to water? Can a stronger-than-steel material be lighter than paper? Can enough transparency be acquired that a chemical looks almost invisible? Can a material have more than three dimensions? Can we determine where, if any, >4 dimensions may lead?
Instability of ‘Super-Heavy’ Elements
Because large“super-heavy” elements are not stable, scientists have not yet determined many of the above characteristics. Livermorium (Lv-116) decayed within a few nanoseconds into Flerovium (Fl-114). Both with half-lives <1 second.
Electron configuration typically adheres to rules of quantum mechanics. The electron number in an element’s outermost valence shell determines chemical bonding behavior. Therefore the atomic number determines its chemical properties.
With smaller atoms, neutrons and protons completely fill the energy levels of a given shell in the nucleus. A filled energy level for an atom will have a longer half-life, than those that do not possess filled shells.
Larger atoms might have “magic numbers” of protons and neutrons in the atom. A theoretical neutron magic number is 184, with matching proton numbers of 114, 120 & 126. Therefore the most stable isotopes would be flerovium–298, unbinilium–304 and unbihexium–310. The last isotope mentioned (Ubh-310), is considered “doubly magic” (proton number , neutron number , both magic). Therefore likely having very long half-life.
The named elements were first made 10 years ago, and further testing confirmed the elements’ existence. The elements’ official names were not approved until now by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), which governs chemical nomenclature.
Flerovium, and Livermorium were previously ununquadium and ununhexium, based on Latin for ‘114’ & ‘116’. Four other known elements (113, 115, 117 & 118) have temporary names: ununtrium, ununpentium, ununseptium, and ununoctium. All can be seen on published periodic tables.
‘Island of Instability’ Out There
Synthesis of new elements is done by bombarding another element with ions, or the sum of the atomic numbers of the target and ion elements, equals the atomic number of the element being created. Usually, the half-life decreases as atomic number increases. But an “island of stability” is theorized to exist for certain large molecules.
That “island of instability” could contain a wealth of information, and literally be a quantum leap in technical advancement. Right now, more information many humans can comprehend (quark, lepton, and bosun) is discussed in the Graphic: Nature’s Tiniest Particles Explained. ‘Dark matter’ has been determined to make up 23% of the known universe—’dark energy’, 73%.
What elements have not been made, yet? What does ‘dark matter’ do? Where is the other 77%? Where is the other 27% of ‘dark energy’? What have we not yet been told about?
X-Files Rears Head
When we understand what really can exist, the dark chasm of the X-Files will open for us all…
Kevin Roeten can be reached at [email protected].